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Neutron-poor nuclides with atomic numbers less than 83 tend to decay by either electron capture or positron emission.
Many of these nuclides decay by both routes, but positron emission is more often observed in the lighter nuclides, such as A third mode of decay is observed in neutron-poor nuclides that have atomic numbers larger than 83.
Binding energies gradually increase with atomic number, although they tend to level off near the end of the periodic table.The product of this reaction can be predicted, once again, by assuming that mass and charge are conserved. They rapidly lose their kinetic energy as they pass through matter.As soon as they come to rest, they combine with an electron to form two -ray photons in a matter-antimatter annihilation reaction.-decay are often obtained in an excited state.A more useful quantity is obtained by dividing the binding energy for a nuclide by the total number of protons and neutrons it contains.This quantity is known as the binding energy per nucleon.